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“The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.”

Nelson Mandela

Neural regulation of GIT

Motility patterns– Peristalsis– Peristalsis is a reflex response that is initiated when the gut wall is stretched by the contents of the lumen, and it occurs in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract from the oesophagus to the rectum.  The stretch initiates a circular contraction behind the stimulus and an area of relaxation in front […]

Upper G.I bleeding- ACG clinical guideline update.

The American college of gastroenterology had published the latest UGIB guidelines in January 2021. Although much has not changed, they have considered new evidence from RCT’s published in the last 5 years to make these recommendations.

Covid 19 treatment- facts and myths uncovered!

SARS-CoV2, first started at Wuhan province, china has spread throughout the world, leading to a pandemic, the science here is evolving daily, with new molecules discovered every day and scientists scrambled to investigate new therapies.

Iron Absorption

The gastric acid production plays a key role in plasma iron homeostasis. 
To be absorbed, iron must be in the ferrous (Fe2+) state or bound by a protein such as heme. 

Physiology of red cell production

Development- They develop at various sites during embryonic periods. Initially yolk sac produces them, then later placenta. During second and third trimester the site shifts to bone marrow and spleen. Yolk sac- produces embryonic hemoglobin and tissue resident macrophages. intraembryonic sites- RBC, platelets, cells of adaptive immunity. Erythropoiesis- differentiation of multipotent stem cells -> primitive erythroid precursors. […]

Hepatitis A

Usually self-limited illness.
Symptoms- nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice.
Incubation period- 15 to 50 days


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